Human Development Chart- Erik Erikson’s  Model of Human Development
Life Stage  Developmental Tasks Psychosocial Crisis Central Process  Ego Quality Definition
Infancy (birth to 2 yr.) 1. Social Attachment 
2. Sensorimotor intelligence and primitive causality 
3. Object permanence 
4. Maturation of sensory and motor functions 
5. Emotional development 
Trust versus mistrust  Mutuality with the caregiver Hope An enduring belief that one can attain one’s deep and essential wishes.
Toddlerhood (2-4) 1. Elaboration of locomotion 
2. Fantasy and play 
3. Language development 
4. Self control
Autonomy versus shame and doubt  Imitation  Will A determination to exercise free choice and self control.
Early school age (5-7) 1. Sex identification 
2. Concrete operations 
3. Early moral development 
4. Group play
Initiative versus guilt  Identification  Purpose The courage to imagine and pursue valued goals
Middle school age (8-12) 1. Social cooperation 
2. Self-evaluation 
3. Skill learning 
4. Team play
Industry versus inferiority  Education  Competence The free exercise of skill and intelligence in the completion of tasks
Early adolescence (13-17)  1. Physical maturation 
2. Formal operations 
3. Emotional development 
4. Membership in the peer group 
5. Heterosexual relationships
Group Identity versus alienation Peer pressure Fidelity I  The ability to sustain loyalties to others that are freely pledged.
Later adolescence (18-22) 1. Autonomy from parents 
2. Sex-role identity 
3. Internalized morality 
4. Career Choice 
Individual identity versus role diffusion Role experimentation Fidelity II The ability to sustain loyalties to values and ideologies that are freely pledged
Early adulthood (23-34) 1. Marriage 
2. Child bearing 
3. Work 
4. Lifestyle
Intimacy versus isolation Mutuality among peers  Love The capacity for mutuality that transcends childhood dependency.
Middle adulthood (35-60) 1. Management of the household 
2. Child rearing 
3. Management of a career
Generativity versus stagnation Person-environment fit and creativity  Care The commitment to be concerned for what has been generated
Later Adulthood (61- )   1. Coping with the physical changes of aging 
2. Redirection of energy to new roles 
3. Acceptance of one’s life 
4. Developing a point of view about death 
Integrity versus despair Introspection  Wisdom The detached yet active concern with life itself in the face of death. 

 Adapted from: Zastrow, C and Kirst-Ashman, K.(1990). Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment (Second Edition). Nelson-Hall Publishers, Chicago.

R. Bruce McNellie, Ph.D., LCSW,LPC,LMFT,DCSW, 4/17/2007